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:: Volume 9, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2022 2022) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2022, 9(2): 39-44 Back to browse issues page
Effect of Bakery Process Waste as Partial Flour Substitute on Toast Bread Properties
Ali Kolivand, Sepideh Bahrami, Ghasem Fadavi *
Food, Halal and Agricultural products research group, Research center of food Technology and Agicultural products, Standard Research Institute. Karaj, Iran , fadavi@standard.ac.ir
Abstract:   (73 Views)
Background and Objectives: Bread of any kind is a staple food in many countries and supplies some important macro- and micro-nutrients. Now global challenges such as climate change, drought and wars have triggered increase in wheat price, and thus, food insecurity.
Materials and Methods: To reduce bread waste and increase its productivity, we studied the effect of adding toast bread waste powder at the levels of 2, 3, 5 and 7% (samples 2-5, respectively) to dough as flour substitution, on toast bread properties. Other ingredients and bakery processes were the same as the control bread (sample 1). Moisture, porosity and specific volume of all samples were determined. Finally, rheological tests (hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness, gumminess, springiness and chewiness) and sensory evaluation (crust and crumb color, taste, chewability, surface shape and overall acceptability) were carried out.
Results: The results showed that by increasing the inclusion rate of bread waste into the dough, the bread’s moisture content was increased significantly while its porosity and specific volume were declined. Although some rheological attributes (hardness and chewiness) did not present clear trends, there was a negative relation between springiness and the substitution levels on both days (1 and 3) while adhesiveness on day 1 and gumminess on day 3 displayed positive correlation with bread waste inclusion. In sensory data analysis, samples 2 and 3 appeared to be more similar to the control one.
Conclusions: The authors recommend up to 2% of flour substitution by bread waste, which had no significant or minimal effect on toast bread properties.
Keywords: Toast bread, Process waste, Rheology, Sensory evaluation
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Article type: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2022/01/30 | Accepted: 2022/04/12 | Published: 2022/04/30
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Kolivand A, Bahrami S, Fadavi G. Effect of Bakery Process Waste as Partial Flour Substitute on Toast Bread Properties. Nutr Food Sci Res. 2022; 9 (2) :39-44
URL: http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-567-en.html

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Volume 9, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2022 2022) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
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