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:: Volume 3, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2016) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2016, 3(1): 43-50 Back to browse issues page
Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) Essential Oils
Fatemeh Azhdarzadeh, Mohammad Hojjati
Department of Food Science and Technology, Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University of Khouzestan, Iran , a_peymaneh@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (8667 Views)

Background and Objectives: The chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of bitter orange (Citrus aurantium) leaf, ripe and unripe peel essential oils, cultivated in southwest of Iran, were investigated.

Materials and Methods: The analysis of chemical composition of hydro-distilled essential oils was carried out by GC-MS. The disc diffusion and broth micro-dilution were used to assay the antimicrobial effect of achieved essential oils.

Results: According to the GC-MS analysis, 34, 39 and 21 components were determined in the leaf, ripe and unripe peel, respectively. The results revealed that the main components of all essential oils were linalool and limonene. The oxygenated monoterpene and hydrocarbonated monoterpene were the main chemical groups of leaf and peel essential oils, respectively. Although all of the examined essential oils had antimicrobial potential, the leaf and unripe peel essential oils with MIC of 4.67 mg/ml were the most effective against the bacteria and yeast species, respectively, and the ripe peel essential oil was the weakest one. The growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was controlled in the treated orange juices. The antifungal activity of essential oils was increased by rising up in their concentration and decreased by passing time. Unripe and ripe essential oils showed the strongest and weakest anti yeast potential, respectively.

Conclusions: The essential oils of leaves and ripe and unripe peels of bitter orange could be used as natural preservatives in food industry.

Keywords: Citrus aurantium, Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, Essential oil, GC-MS
Full-Text [PDF 137 kb]   (6238 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2015/08/17 | Accepted: 2016/01/6 | Published: 2016/01/6
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Azhdarzadeh F, Hojjati M. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf, Ripe and Unripe Peel of Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium) Essential Oils. Nutr Food Sci Res 2016; 3 (1) :43-50
URL: http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-118-en.html

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Volume 3, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2016) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
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