[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 7, Issue 2 (Apr 2020) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2020, 7(2): 1-12 Back to browse issues page
The Effect of Caffeine on Health and Exercise Performance with a Cold Brew Coffee Approach: A Scoping Review
Hoseyn Fatolahi , Alireza Farahmand, Shabnam Rezakhani
Department of Physical Education, Pardis Branch, Islamic Azad University, Pardis, Iran
Abstract:   (297 Views)
Based on the effects of coffee and caffeine, in particular, a review study is needed to investigate associations between the caffeine consumption and its health-linked effects. Furthermore, effects of coffee on sport performance have not fully been elucidated. Based on the increased popularity of the cold-brew coffee, this study has provided a comprehensive overview of the effects of cold-brew coffee on health and exercise performance. Databases (PubMed, Science Direct and Google Scholar) were searched for articles on human models. Totally, 2805 articles were identified from 2000 to 2020. Keywords included coffee, caffeine, cold brew, exercise, training and sports performance. Studies involving caffeine-suppressing drugs and animal studies and cases with physical limitations were excluded and thus 84 articles were identified. Results showed that consumption of 3 to 4 cups of coffee (300–400 mg/day) was associated with decreased risk factors of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and Alzheimer disease. It is noteworthy that caffeine intake in specific groups, particularly in women, needs special consideration. However, health benefits of the cold-brew coffee seem to be greater due to the drink low acidity and high antioxidant activity. In this study, the most important factor included decreases in chlorogenic acid. Moreover, consumption of cold-brew coffee in warm weather prevented hyperthermia. In fact, 3–9 mg/kg of caffeine improved physical performance in resistance and endurance exercises. Caffeine consumption could increase lipid oxidation in aerobic exercises as well as stimulate sympathetic nerves in anaerobic exercises. However, investigation of the acute and chronic effects of consuming coffee in various contexts to achieve integrated results needs further investigations.
Keywords: Coffee, Caffeine, Health, Cold brew, Sports performance
Full-Text [PDF 640 kb]   (70 Downloads)    
Protocol Study: Review | Subject: nutrition
Received: 2020/02/15 | Accepted: 2020/05/17 | Published: 2020/05/26
References
1. Karimnezhad n, Mahdavi Roshan M, Izaddoust F, Shabani R. The Simultaneous Effects of Green Coffee and Combine Exercise Training on Body Composition and Glucose Homeostasis in Obese and Overweight Women. JOURNAL OF MEDICINAL PLANTS. 2019;18(72 #b00671):215-27.
2. de Lima LM, de Pellegrini Elias L, e Silva MMCD, da Silva KV, Pacheco ASV. Chapter 16 - Behavioral aspects of the coffee consumer in different countries: The case of Brazil. In: de Almeida LF, Spers EE, editors. Coffee Consumption and Industry Strategies in Brazil: Woodhead Publishing; 2020. p. 321-41. [DOI:10.1016/B978-0-12-814721-4.00016-0]
3. Reyes CM, Cornelis MC. Caffeine in the Diet: Country-Level Consumption and Guidelines. Nutrients. 2018;10(11). [DOI:10.3390/nu10111772]
4. Salari-Moghaddam A, Milajerdi A, Surkan PJ, Larijani B, Esmaillzadeh A. Caffeine, Type of Coffee, and Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Dose-Response Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019;104(11):5349-59. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2019-00637]
5. Cano-Marquina A, Tarin JJ, Cano A. The impact of coffee on health. Maturitas. 2013;75(1):7-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.maturitas.2013.02.002]
6. Nuhu AA. Bioactive micronutrients in coffee: recent analytical approaches for characterization and quantification. ISRN Nutr. 2014;2014:384230-. [DOI:10.1155/2014/384230]
7. Ahmadifar M, Nateghi R. The effect of caffeine intake on the risk of cardiovascular disease. Scientific Journal Management System. 2015;5(19):58-71.
8. Poole R, Kennedy OJ, Roderick P, Fallowfield JA, Hayes PC, Parkes J. Coffee consumption and health: umbrella review of meta-analyses of multiple health outcomes. Bmj. 2017;359:j5024. [DOI:10.1136/bmj.j5024]
9. Del Coso J, Salinero JJ, Lara B. Effects of Caffeine and Coffee on Human Functioning. Nutrients. 2020;12(1). [DOI:10.3390/nu12010125]
10. D'Elia L, Fata E, Galletti F, Scalfi L, Strazzullo P. Coffee consumption and risk of hypertension: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies. European Journal of Nutrition. 2017;58. [DOI:10.1007/s00394-017-1591-z]
11. Mousavi A, Koushki Jahromi M, Salesi M, Daryanoush F, Khoshnam E, Nikseresht A, et al. Impact of caffeine consumption on heart rate and blood pressure during rest and exercise. jumsjmj. 2011;9(1):7-13. [DOI:10.29252/jmj.9.1.7]
12. Del Coso J, Muñoz G, Muñoz-Guerra J. Prevalence of caffeine use in elite athletes following its removal from the World Anti-Doping Agency list of banned substances. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2011;36(4):555-61. [DOI:10.1139/h11-052]
13. Grgic J, Grgic I, Pickering C, Schoenfeld B, Bishop D, Pedisic Z. Wake up and smell the coffee: caffeine supplementation and exercise performance-An umbrella review of 21 published meta-analyses. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2019. [DOI:10.1136/bjsports-2018-100278]
14. Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick K, Ali A. The Effect of Acute Caffeine Ingestion on Endurance Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Sports Medicine. 2018;48. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-018-0939-8]
15. Taheri M, Irandoost K, Yousefi S, Jamali A. Effect of 8-Week Lower Extremity Weight-Bearing Exercise Protocol and Acute Caffeine Consumption on Reaction Time in Postmenopausal Women. Yektaweb_Journals. 2017;12(1):18-29. [DOI:10.21859/sija-120116]
16. Grgic J, Mikulic P, Schoenfeld B, Bishop D, Pedisic Z. The Influence of Caffeine Supplementation on Resistance Exercise: A Review. Sports Medicine. 2018;49. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-018-0997-y]
17. Pickering C, Grgic J. Caffeine and Exercise: What Next? Sports Med. 2019;49(7):1007-30. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-019-01101-0]
18. Burke LM. Practical Issues in Evidence-Based Use of Performance Supplements: Supplement Interactions, Repeated Use and Individual Responses. Sports Med. 2017;47(Suppl 1):79-100. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-017-0687-1]
19. Adhikari J, Chambers Et, Koppel K. Impact of consumption temperature on sensory properties of hot brewed coffee. Food Res Int. 2019;115:95-104. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2018.08.014]
20. Sanchez Alan K, Chambers E. How Does Product Preparation Affect Sensory Properties? An Example with Coffee. Journal of Sensory Studies. 2015;30:n/a-n/a. [DOI:10.1111/joss.12184]
21. Farah A, Monteiro MC, Calado V, Franca AS, Trugo LC. Correlation between cup quality and chemical attributes of Brazilian coffee. Food Chemistry. 2006;98(2):373-80. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.07.032]
22. Esquivel P, Jiménez VM. Functional properties of coffee and coffee by-products. Food Research International. 2012;46(2):488-95. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodres.2011.05.028]
23. Kanjanakorn A, Lee J. Examining emotions and comparing the EsSense Profile® and the Coffee Drinking Experience in coffee drinkers in the natural environment. Food Quality and Preference. 2017;56:69-79. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodqual.2016.09.014]
24. Angeloni G, Guerrini L, Masella P, Innocenti M, Bellumori M, Parenti A. Characterization and comparison of Cold Brew and Cold Drip Coffee Extraction Methods. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture. 2018. [DOI:10.1002/jsfa.9200]
25. Naveed M, Hejazi V, Abbas M, Kamboh AA, Khan GJ, Shumzaid M, et al. Chlorogenic acid (CGA): A pharmacological review and call for further research. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy. 2018;97:67-74. [DOI:10.1016/j.biopha.2017.10.064]
26. Akiyama M, Murakami K, Hirano Y, Ikeda M, Iwatsuki K, Wada A, et al. Characterization of Headspace Aroma Compounds of Freshly Brewed Arabica Coffees and Studies on a Characteristic Aroma Compound of Ethiopian Coffee. Journal of food science. 2008;73:C335-46. [DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2008.00752.x]
27. Blumberg S, Frank O, Hofmann T. Quantitative Studies on the Influence of the Bean Roasting Parameters and Hot Water Percolation on the Concentrations of Bitter Compounds in Coffee Brew. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2010;58:3720-8. [DOI:10.1021/jf9044606]
28. Sato Y, Itagaki S, Kurokawa T, Ogura J, Kobayashi M, Hirano T, et al. In vitro and in viva antioxidant properties of chlorogenic acid and cafeic acid. International journal of pharmaceutics. 2010;403:136-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2010.09.035]
29. Fuller M, Rao NZ. The Effect of Time, Roasting Temperature, and Grind Size on Caffeine and Chlorogenic Acid Concentrations in Cold Brew Coffee. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):17979-. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-18247-4]
30. Rao NZ, Fuller M. Acidity and Antioxidant Activity of Cold Brew Coffee. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):16030-. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-34392-w]
31. Kubo A, Block G, Quesenberry CP, Jr., Buffler P, Corley DA. Dietary guideline adherence for gastroesophageal reflux disease. BMC Gastroenterol. 2014;14:144-. [DOI:10.1186/1471-230X-14-144]
32. Piccioni A, Covino M, Zanza C, Longhitano Y, Tullo G, Bonadia N, et al. Energy Drinks: A Narrative Review Of Their Physiological And Pathological Effects. Internal Medicine Journal. 2020;10.1111/imj.14881(accepted for publication). [DOI:10.1111/imj.14881]
33. Grosso G, Micek A, Godoś J, Sciacca S, Pajak A, Martínez-González M, et al. Coffee consumption and risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in smokers and non-smokers: a dose-response meta-analysis. European Journal of Epidemiology. 2016;31. [DOI:10.1007/s10654-016-0202-2]
34. Samoggia A, Riedel B. Consumers' Perceptions of Coffee Health Benefits and Motives for Coffee Consumption and Purchasing. Nutrients. 2019;11(3). [DOI:10.3390/nu11030653]
35. Heo J, Choi KS, Wang S, Adhikari K, Lee J. Cold Brew Coffee: Consumer Acceptability and Characterization Using the Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) Method. Foods. 2019;8(8):344. [DOI:10.3390/foods8080344]
36. Mahoney CR, Giles GE, Marriott BP, Judelson DA, Glickman EL, Geiselman PJ, et al. Intake of caffeine from all sources and reasons for use by college students. Clinical Nutrition. 2019;38(2):668-75. [DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2018.04.004]
37. Cornelis MC, Munafo MR. Mendelian Randomization Studies of Coffee and Caffeine Consumption. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1343. [DOI:10.3390/nu10101343]
38. B Barnung R, H Nøst T, Ulven SM, Skeie G, S Olsen K. Coffee Consumption and Whole-Blood Gene Expression in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-Genome Cohort. Nutrients. 2018;10(8):1047. [DOI:10.3390/nu10081047]
39. van Dijk R, Ties D, Kuijpers D, van der Harst P, Oudkerk M. Effects of Caffeine on Myocardial Blood Flow: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2018;10(8):1083. [DOI:10.3390/nu10081083]
40. Yaya I, Marcellin F, Costa M, Morlat P, Protopopescu C, Pialoux G, et al. Impact of Alcohol and Coffee Intake on the Risk of Advanced Liver Fibrosis: A Longitudinal Analysis in HIV-HCV Coinfected Patients (ANRS HEPAVIH CO-13 Cohort). Nutrients. 2018;10(6):705. [DOI:10.3390/nu10060705]
41. Navarro AM, Abasheva D, Martínez-González MÁ, Ruiz-Estigarribia L, Martín-Calvo N, Sánchez-Villegas A, et al. Coffee Consumption and the Risk of Depression in a Middle-Aged Cohort: The SUN Project. Nutrients. 2018;10(9):1333. [DOI:10.3390/nu10091333]
42. Lee S-Y, Jung G, Jang M-J, Suh M-W, Lee JH, Oh SH, et al. Association of Coffee Consumption with Hearing and Tinnitus Based on a National Population-Based Survey. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1429. [DOI:10.3390/nu10101429]
43. Haller S, Montandon M-L, Rodriguez C, Herrmann FR, Giannakopoulos P. Impact of Coffee, Wine, and Chocolate Consumption on Cognitive Outcome and MRI Parameters in Old Age. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1391. [DOI:10.3390/nu10101391]
44. Gkegkes ID, Minis EE, Iavazzo C. Effect of Caffeine Intake on Postoperative Ileus: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Digestive Surgery. 2020;37(1):22-31. [DOI:10.1159/000496431]
45. Richards G, Smith AP. A Review of Energy Drinks and Mental Health, with a Focus on Stress, Anxiety, and Depression. Journal of Caffeine Research. 2016;6(2):49-63. [DOI:10.1089/jcr.2015.0033]
46. KÜÇEr N. The relationship between daily caffeine consumption and withdrawal symptoms: A questionnaire-based study. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences. 2010;40.
47. Verster J. Caffeine Consumption in Children, Adolescents and Adults. Current drug abuse reviews. 2015;7. [DOI:10.2174/1874473708666150113165705]
48. Wolfson A. Adolescents and Emerging Adults' Sleep Patterns: New Developments. The Journal of adolescent health : official publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. 2010;46:97-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2009.11.210]
49. Acheson K, Gremaud G, Meirim I, Montigon F, Krebs Y, Fay L, et al. Metabolic effects of caffeine in humans: Lipid oxidation or futile cycling? The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2004;79:40-6. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/79.1.40]
50. Wang L, Shen X, Wu Y, Zhang D. Coffee and caffeine consumption and depression: A meta-analysis of observational studies. The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry. 2015;50. [DOI:10.1177/0004867415603131]
51. Tallis J, Duncan MJ, Wright SL, Eyre ELJ, Bryant E, Langdon D, et al. Assessment of the ergogenic effect of caffeine supplementation on mood, anticipation timing, and muscular strength in older adults. Physiol Rep. 2013;1(3):e00072-e. [DOI:10.1002/phy2.72]
52. Artalejo F, Garcia E. Coffee Consumption and Cardiovascular Disease: A Condensed Review of Epidemiological Evidence and Mechanisms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2017;66. [DOI:10.1021/acs.jafc.7b04506]
53. Liang N, Kitts DD. Role of Chlorogenic Acids in Controlling Oxidative and Inflammatory Stress Conditions. Nutrients. 2015;8(1):16. [DOI:10.3390/nu8010016]
54. Turnbull D, Rodricks JV, Mariano GF, Chowdhury F. Caffeine and cardiovascular health. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2017;89:165-85. [DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.07.025]
55. Carlsson S, Hammar N, Grill V, Kaprio J. Coffee consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes in Finnish twins. International journal of epidemiology. 2004;33:616-7. [DOI:10.1093/ije/dyh185]
56. Muley A, Muley P, Shah M. Coffee to Reduce Risk of Type 2 Diabetes? : A Systematic Review. Current diabetes reviews. 2012;8:162-8. [DOI:10.2174/157339912800564016]
57. Moeenfard M, Rocha L, Alves A. Quantification of Caffeoylquinic Acids in Coffee Brews by HPLC-DAD. J Anal Methods Chem. 2014;2014:965353-. [DOI:10.1155/2014/965353]
58. Mancini RS, Wang Y, Weaver DF. Phenylindanes in Brewed Coffee Inhibit Amyloid-Beta and Tau Aggregation. Front Neurosci. 2018;12:735-. [DOI:10.3389/fnins.2018.00735]
59. Eskelinen M, Kivipelto M. Caffeine as a Protective Factor in Dementia and Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. 2010;20 Suppl 1:S167-74. [DOI:10.3233/JAD-2010-1404]
60. Hernán M, Takkouche B, Caamano-Isorna F, Gestal Otero JJ. A Meta-analysis of Coffee Drinking, Cigarette Smoking, and the Risk of Parkinson's Disease. Annals of neurology. 2002;52:276-84. [DOI:10.1002/ana.10277]
61. Wierzejska R. Can coffee consumption lower the risk of Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease? A literature review. Archives of Medical Science. 2016;13.
62. Xu L, Lao F, Xu Z, Wang X, Chen F, Liao X, et al. Use of Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry and Metabolomic Approach to Discriminate Coffee Brewed by Different Methods. Food Chemistry. 2019;286. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.154]
63. Shin K-S. The Chemical Characteristics and Immune-Modulating Activity of Polysaccharides Isolated from Cold-Brew Coffee. Preventive Nutrition and Food Science. 2017;22:100-6.
64. Nordestgaard A, Nordestgaard B. Coffee intake, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: observational and Mendelian randomization analyses in 95 000-223 000 individuals. International journal of epidemiology. 2016;45. [DOI:10.1093/ije/dyw325]
65. Teixeira J, Gaspar A, Garrido EM, Garrido J, Borges F. Hydroxycinnamic acid antioxidants: an electrochemical overview. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:251754-. [DOI:10.1155/2013/251754]
66. Xu J-G, Hu Q-P, Liu Y. Antioxidant and DNA-Protective Activities of Chlorogenic Acid Isomers. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 2012;60. [DOI:10.1021/jf303771s]
67. Jafari A, Farajpour Khazaei S, Alipour M. Effect of one-month concurrent training with or without caffeine supplementation on resting energy expenditure and leptin resistance in overweight women. DANESHVAR MEDICINE. 2019;27(140 #T00271):37-46.
68. Hurst P, Schipof-Godart L, Szabo A, Raglin J, Hettinga F, Roelands B, et al. The Placebo and Nocebo effect on sports performance: A systematic review. European Journal of Sport Science. 2019:1-14. [DOI:10.1080/17461391.2019.1655098]
69. Saunders B, Oliveira L, Silva R, Painelli V, Gonçalves L, Yamaguchi G, et al. Placebo in sports nutrition: A proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports. 2016;27. [DOI:10.1111/sms.12793]
70. Foskett A, Ali A, Gant N. Caffeine Enhances Cognitive Function and Skill Performance During Simulated Soccer Activity. International journal of sport nutrition and exercise metabolism. 2009;19:410-23. [DOI:10.1123/ijsnem.19.4.410]
71. Pickering C, Kiely J. Are the Current Guidelines on Caffeine Use in Sport Optimal for Everyone? Inter-individual Variation in Caffeine Ergogenicity, and a Move Towards Personalised Sports Nutrition. Sports Medicine. 2017;48. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-017-0776-1]
72. Bchir F, Dogui M, Ben Fradj R, Arnaud MJ, Saguem S. Differences in pharmacokinetic and electroencephalographic responses to caffeine in sleep-sensitive and non-sensitive subjects. Comptes Rendus Biologies. 2006;329(7):512-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.crvi.2006.01.006]
73. Abraham J, Mudd J, Kapur N, Klein K, Champion H, Wittstein I. Stress Cardiomyopathy After Intravenous Administration of Catecholamines and Beta-Receptor Agonists. Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 2009;53:1320-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.jacc.2009.02.020]
74. Kendler K, Schmitt J, Aggen S, Prescott C. Genetic and Environmental Influences on Alcohol, Caffeine, Cannabis, and Nicotine Use From Early Adolescence to Middle Adulthood. Archives of general psychiatry. 2008;65:674-82. [DOI:10.1001/archpsyc.65.6.674]
75. Southward K, Rutherfurd-Markwick K, Badenhorst C, Ali A. The Role of Genetics in Moderating the Inter-Individual Differences in the Ergogenicity of Caffeine. Nutrients. 2018;10(10):1352. [DOI:10.3390/nu10101352]
76. Shabir A, Hooton A, Tallis J, Higgins M. The Influence of Caffeine Expectancies on Sport, Exercise, and Cognitive Performance. Nutrients. 2018;10:1528. [DOI:10.3390/nu10101528]
77. Shen J, Brooks M, Cincotta J, Manjourides J. Establishing a relationship between the effect of caffeine and duration of endurance athletic time trial events: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2018;22. [DOI:10.1016/j.jsams.2018.07.022]
78. Rosser J, Walsh B, Hogan M. Effect of physiological levels of caffeine on Ca2+ handling and fatigue development in Xenopus isolated single myofibers. American journal of physiology Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology. 2009;296:R1512-7. [DOI:10.1152/ajpregu.90901.2008]
79. Rothschild J, Bishop D. Effects of Dietary Supplements on Adaptations to Endurance Training. Sports Medicine. 2019;50. [DOI:10.1007/s40279-019-01185-8]
80. Salinero J, Lara B, Del Coso J. Effects of acute ingestion of caffeine on team sports performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Research in Sports Medicine. 2018;27:1-19. [DOI:10.1080/15438627.2018.1552146]
81. Souza D, Del Coso J, Casonatto J, Polito M. Acute effects of caffeine-containing energy drinks on physical performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Nutrition. 2016;56. [DOI:10.1007/s00394-016-1331-9]
82. Astley C, Souza D, Polito M. Acute Specific Effects of Caffeine-containing Energy Drink on Different Physical Performances in Resistance-trained Men. International Journal of Exercise Science. 2018;11:260-8.
83. Forati H, Hojjati Z, Rahmani Nia F. The Effect of Caffein Consumption on Muscular Strenght and Endurance in Amateur Male Soccer Players Journal of Practical Studies at Biosciences in Sport 2015;2(4):68-77.
84. Mielgo-Ayuso J, Marqués-Jiménez D, Román I, Del Coso J, León-Guereño P, Calleja Gonzalez J. Effect of Caffeine Supplementation on Sports Performance Based on Differences Between Sexes: A Systematic Review. Nutrients. 2019;11:2313. [DOI:10.3390/nu11102313]
85. Jodra P, Lago A, Sanchez-Oliver A, Lopez-Samanes A, Pérez-López A, Herreros P, et al. Effects of caffeine supplementation on physical performance and mood dimensions in elite and trained-recreational athletes. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. 2020;17. [DOI:10.1186/s12970-019-0332-5]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Fatolahi H, Farahmand A, Rezakhani S. The Effect of Caffeine on Health and Exercise Performance with a Cold Brew Coffee Approach: A Scoping Review. Nutr Food Sci Res. 2020; 7 (2) :1-12
URL: http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-390-en.html


Volume 7, Issue 2 (Apr 2020) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 32 queries by YEKTAWEB 4140