[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 7, Issue 3 (Jul-Sep 2020) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2020, 7(3): 25-32 Back to browse issues page
Poverty Trend and Infant Malnutrition in Rwanda
Jean de Dieu HARERIMANA
University of Nairobi
Abstract:   (416 Views)
Background and Objectives: A strong link between child malnutrition and poverty has been documented especially in developing countries. Considering one child under two year out of three in Rwanda suffers from some form of malnutrition, promoting community welfare seems to bring about beneficial outcomes in terms of reduction of malnutrition. This study aims to determine and estimate the risk factors associated with deprivation and infant malnutrition in Rwanda.
Materials and Methods: The methodology targeted mostly households with children under two years. Using two consecutive nationally representative population-based survey data of Rwanda, Demographic and Health Survey 2010/11 and 2014/15, the risk factors associated with the outcome were determined and using stepwise logistic regression analysis, the socioeconomic determinants were predicted.
Results: The findings were estimated from a sample of children under two years: 3,441 and 2,975 in Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys 2010 and 2014/15. Households in the lowest wealth quintile were more likely to have children experiencing malnutrition (OR= 1.61, 95% CI: 1.17-2.2, p < 0.05 in 2010/11; OR= 1.7, 95% CI: 1.23-2.35,
p<0.01 in 2014/15) whereas deprivation was less likely to associate with malnutrition among children under two years (OR=0.53, 95% CI: 0.35-0.8, p < 0.001 in 2014/15). Overall, the trend went down significantly with the slope of 0.1536 suggesting a decrease of deprivation between two surveys by 0.065.
Conclusions: With the assumption of constancy of other factors, the trend of deprivation was significant to explain its association with infant malnutrition. Therefore, strengthening social protection interventions targeting the lowest wealth quintile category to afford food against price volatility are highly suggested.
Keywords: Dual burden, Food security, Deprivation, Stunting, Wasting, Underweight
Full-Text [PDF 558 kb]   (163 Downloads)    
Protocol Study: Research | Subject: nutrition
Received: 2020/06/8 | Accepted: 2020/07/6 | Published: 2020/08/10
References
1. Black RE, Morris SS, Bryce J. Where and why are 10 million children dying every year? Lancet. 2003;361(9376):2226-34. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13779-8]
2. Rice AL, Sacco L, Hyder A, Black RE. Malnutrition as an underlying cause of childhood deaths associated with infectious diseases in developing countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78(10):1207-21.
3. Dalton PS, Ghosal S, Mani A. Poverty and Aspirations Failure. Econ J. 2016;126(590):165-88. [DOI:10.1111/ecoj.12210]
4. Bhatia J, Bhutta Z., Kalhan S. Maternal and Child Nutrition: The First 1,000 Days. Indian J Med Res. 2015;142(2):231-2. [DOI:10.4103/0971-5916.164278]
5. Bourke CD, Berkley JA, Prendergast AJ. Immune Dysfunction as a Cause and Consequence of Malnutrition. Trends Immunol. 2016;37(6):386-98. [DOI:10.1016/j.it.2016.04.003]
6. de Onis M, Branca F. Childhood stunting: A global perspective. Matern Child Nutr. 2016;12 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):12-26. [DOI:10.1111/mcn.12231]
7. Shimpton R, Rokx C. The Double Burden of Malnutrition: A review of global evidence. Health, Nutrition and Population Discussion Paper.The World Bank. 2012. [DOI:10.1596/27417]
8. UNICEF, WHO, Bank W. Levels and trends in child malnutrition: Key findings of the 2018 Edition of the Joint Child Malnutrition Estimates. Joint child malnutrition estimates - Levels and trends. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018.
9. NISR, MOH-Rwanda, ICF International. Rwanda Demographic and Health Survey, 2014-2015. ICF International. 2016.
10. Adato M, Bassett L. Social protection to support vulnerable children and families: The potential of cash transfers to protect education, health and nutrition. AIDS Care. 2009;21(S1):60-75. [DOI:10.1080/09540120903112351]
11. Haushofer J, Shapiro J. The short-term impact of unconditional cash transfers to the poor: Experimental evidence from kenya. Q J Econ. 2016;131(4):1973-2042. [DOI:10.1093/qje/qjw025]
12. Jensen RT, Miller NH. Do consumer price subsidies really improve nutrition? Rev Econ Stat. 2011;93(4):1205-23. [DOI:10.1162/REST_a_00118]
13. Kaushal N, Muchomba FM. How Consumer Price Subsidies affect Nutrition. World Dev. 2015;74(C):25-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.04.006]
14. Crooks DL. Child growth and nutritional status in a high-poverty community in eastern Kentucky. Am J Phys Anthropol. 1999;109(1):129-42. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199905)109:1<129::AID-AJPA10>3.0.CO;2-F [DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199905)109:13.0.CO;2-F]
15. Abuya BA, Ciera J, Kimani-Murage E. Effect of mother's education on child's nutritional status in the slums of Nairobi. BMC Pediatr. 2012;12(1):80. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2431-12-80]
16. Christian P, Mullany LC, Hurley KM, Katz J, Black RE. Nutrition and maternal, neonatal, and child health. Semin Perinatol. 2015;39(5):361-72. [DOI:10.1053/j.semperi.2015.06.009]
17. Bhutta ZA, Das JK, Rizvi A, Gaffey MF, Walker N, Horton S, et al. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: What can be done and at what cost? The Lancet. 2013. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60996-4]
18. Kraay A, McKenzie D. Do Poverty Traps Exist? Assessing the Evidence. J Econ Perspect. 2014; [DOI:10.1596/1813-9450-6835]
19. Duclos JY, Araar A, Giles J. Chronic and transient poverty: Measurement and estimation, with evidence from China. J Dev Econ. 2010; [DOI:10.1016/j.jdeveco.2009.09.002]
20. Mahadevan R, Hoang V. Is There a Link Between Poverty and Food Security? Soc Indic Res. 2016; [DOI:10.1007/s11205-015-1025-3]
21. Ward PS. Transient Poverty, Poverty Dynamics, and Vulnerability to Poverty: An Empirical Analysis Using a Balanced Panel from Rural China. World Dev. 2016;78(1):541-53. [DOI:10.1016/j.worlddev.2015.10.022]
22. Black R, Vitora C, Walker S, Bhutta Z, Christian P, de Onis M, et al. Maternal and child undernutrition and overweight in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2013;382(9890):427-51. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(13)60937-X]
23. Alkire S. Global multidimensional poverty index. Pak Dev Rev. 2015;54(4 Part 1):287-99. [DOI:10.30541/v54i4I-IIpp.287-299]
24. Adams JRH, Cuecuecha A, Page J. Remittances, consumption and investment in Ghana. Policy Research working paper; no. WPS 4515 Washington, D.C. : World Bank Group. 2008. [DOI:10.1596/1813-9450-4515]
25. Kabubo-Mariara J, Ndenge GK, Mwabu DK. Determinants of children's nutritional status in Kenya: Evidence from Demographic and Health Surveys. J Afr Econ. 2009;18(3):363-87. [DOI:10.1093/jae/ejn024]
26. Ijarotimi OS. Determinants of Childhood Malnutrition and Consequences in Developing Countries. Curr Nutr Rep. 2013;2(1):129-33. [DOI:10.1007/s13668-013-0051-5]
27. Reis M. Food insecurity and the relationship between household income and children's health and nutrition in Brazil. Health Econ. 2012;21(4):405-27. [DOI:10.1002/hec.1722]
28. Saaka M, Osman SM. Does Household Food Insecurity Affect the Nutritional Status of Preschool Children Aged 6-36 Months? Int J Popul Res. 2013;2013(Article ID 304169):1-12. [DOI:10.1155/2013/304169]
29. Borja JB, Amarra S. The impact of early nutrition on health: Key findings from the cebu longitudinal health and nutrition survey. Malays J Nutr. 2013;19(1):1-8.
30. Jr. JSC, Martinez FE. Nutritional dilemmas in extremely low birth weight infants and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2007;81(Suppl.1):33-42. [DOI:10.2223/JPED.1298]
31. Carlson GJ, Kordas K, Murray-Kolb LE. Associations between women's autonomy and child nutritional status: A review of the literature. Matern Child Nutr. 2015;11(4):452-82. [DOI:10.1111/mcn.12113]
32. National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda. Integrated Household Living Conditions Survey 5 (EICV 5): Rwanda Poverty Profile. Report. 2018.
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:

CAPTCHA



XML     Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

HARERIMANA J D D. Poverty Trend and Infant Malnutrition in Rwanda. Nutr Food Sci Res. 2020; 7 (3) :25-32
URL: http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-417-en.html


Volume 7, Issue 3 (Jul-Sep 2020) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 29 queries by YEKTAWEB 4227