[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
:: Volume 9, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2022) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2022, 9(1): 41-48 Back to browse issues page
A Useful Method with Appropriate Recovery and High Accuracy in Simultaneous Analysis of 12 Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Cereal-Based Baby Foods Using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector
Fatemeh Yazdi , Mohammad Hosein Yazdi , Akram Eidi , Shahram Shoeibi
Food and Drug Laboratory Research Center (FDLRC), Iran Food and Drug Administration (IFDA), MOH & ME, Tehran, Iran. , sh.shoeibi@fda.gov.ir
Abstract:   (914 Views)
Background and Objectives: Reliable methods are necessary to analyze polychlorinated biphenyls in baby foods, dietary supplements commonly used for children. Nowadays, contamination of food products, mostly derived from agricultural sources, with polychlorinated biphenyls seems inevitable. Of these, cereal-based baby foods are highly important due to the long-term side effects of polychlorinated biphenyls in babies.
Materials and Methods: In this study, a validated method was developed for the assessment of 12 polychlorinated biphenyls in baby foods based on the solid-phase extraction column sample preparation and gas chromatography-electron capture detectore using PCB 77 and PCB 189 as  internal standards. Validation of the method was assessed by the calculated and achieved parameters for linearity, mean recovery, precision, limit of quantification and limit of detection.
Results: Recoveries at three levels of 0.5, 1 and 2 µg/kg in repeatability and reproducibility studies were in ranges of 78.89–98.32 and 77.28–98.45%, respectively. Linearity was presented as R2 value from 0.9980 to 0.9999, indicating good correlations between the concentrations and peak areas. Limit of quantification and limit of detection were 0.5 and 0.16 (ng/g). Analysis of 30 samples showed that six polychlorinated biphenyls were available in 7% of the samples; of which, 93% were not contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls. None of the samples contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls included contamination higher than the maximum residue limit.
Conclusions: Validated methodology was used in polychlorinated biphenyl analysis in various trademarks of cereal-based baby foods commercialized for the Iranian markets. Samples were screened based on the maximum residue limit by the European Union. This method is a simple method and can be carried out in a short time with high accuracy and precision.
Keywords: Analytical procedure, Cereal, GC-ECD, Polychlorinated biphenyls, PCB, Validation
Full-Text [PDF 798 kb]   (337 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2021/06/28 | Accepted: 2021/09/5 | Published: 2022/01/22
1. Lanting CI, Patandin S, Fidler V, Weisglas-Kuperus N, Sauer PJ, Boersma ER, Touwen BC. Neurological condition in 42-month-old children in relation to pre-and postnatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins. Early human development. 1998 Feb 27;50(3):283-92. [DOI:10.1016/S0378-3782(97)00066-2]
2. Afful S, Awudza JA, Twumasi SK, Osae S. Determination of indicator polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by gas chromatography-electron capture detector. Chemosphere. 2013 Nov 1;93(8):1556-60. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.08.001]
3. Gao G, Chen H, Dai J, Jin L, Chai Y, Zhu L, Liu X, Lu C. Determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in tea using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry combined with dispersive solid phase extraction. Food chemistry. 2020 Jun 30;316:126290. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126290]
4. Olatunji OS. Evaluation of selected polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) congeners and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) in fresh root and leafy vegetables using GC-MS. Scientific reports. 2019 Jan 24;9(1):1-0.6. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-36996-8]
5. Fernandes A, White S, D'Silva K, Rose M. Simultaneous determination of PCDDs, PCDFs, PCBs and PBDEs in food. Talanta. 2004 Aug 8;63(5):1147-55.7. [DOI:10.1016/j.talanta.2004.05.039]
6. Motladiile S, Kwaambwa HM, Sichilongo K. Development and validation of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of PCBs in transformer oil samples-application on real samples from Botswana. Journal of Chromatography & Separation Techniques. 2012;2012(4):116-24. [DOI:10.4172/2157-7064.1000116]
7. Reddy AV, Moniruzzaman M, Aminabhavi TM. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the environment: Recent updates on sampling, pretreatment, cleanup technologies and their analysis. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2019 Feb 15;358:1186-207.9. [DOI:10.1016/j.cej.2018.09.205]
8. Helou K, Harmouche-Karaki M, Karake S, Narbonne JF. A review of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in Lebanon: Environmental and human contaminants. Chemosphere. 2019 Sep 1;231:357-68. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.05.109]
9. Yazdi, F., Yazdi, M. H., Eidi, A., & Shoeibi, S. Overview of Hazardous Environmental Contaminant Pcbs In Human Cancer: Potential Contributions of Carcinogenesis. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2021; 13(1): 5608-5629. [DOI:10.31838/ijpr/2021.13.01.738]
10. Beyer A, Biziuk M. Applications of sample preparation techniques in the analysis of pesticides and PCBs in food. Food Chemistry. 2008 May 15;108(2):669-80.12. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.11.024]
11. Chamkasem N, Lee S, Harmon T. Analysis of 19 PCB congeners in catfish tissue using a modified QuEChERS method with GC-MS/MS. Food chemistry. 2016 Feb 1;192:900-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2015.07.088]
12. Ferrante MC, Fusco G, Monnolo A, Saggiomo F, Guccione J, Mercogliano R, Clausi MT. Food contamination by PCBs and waste disposal crisis: evidence from goat milk in Campania (Italy). Chemosphere. 2017 Nov 1;186:396-404. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.07.144]
13. Dimitrova RT, Stoykova II, Yankovska-Stefanova TT, Yaneva SA, Stoyanchev TT. Development of analytical method for determination of organochlorine pesticides residues in meat by GC-ECD. Revue Méd. Vét. 2018 Jan 1;169:77-86.
14. Han L, Sapozhnikova Y. Semi-automated high-throughput method for residual analysis of 302 pesticides and environmental contaminants in catfish by fast low-pressure GC-MS/MS and UHPLC-MS/MS. Food chemistry. 2020 Jul 30;319:126592.16. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126592]
15. Yazdi F, Shoeibi S, Yazdi MH, Eidi A. Effect of prevalent polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) food contaminant on the MCF7, LNCap and MDA-MB-231 cell lines viability and PON1 gene expression level: proposed model of binding. DARU Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2021 Apr 21:1-2. [DOI:10.1007/s40199-021-00394-9]
16. Norli HR, Christiansen A, Deribe E. Application of QuEChERS method for extraction of selected persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Journal of Chromatography A. 2011 Oct 14;1218(41):7234-41. [DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2011.08.050]
17. Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1881/2006, 02006R1881 - EN - 19.03.2018 - 022.001.
18. Chandran S, Singh RS. Comparison of various international guidelines for analytical method validation. Die Pharmazie-An International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2007 Jan 1;62(1):4-14.
19. Peris‐Vicente J, Esteve‐Romero J, Carda‐Broch S. Validation of analytical methods based on chromatographic techniques: An overview. Analytical separation science. 2015 Dec 7:1757-808. [DOI:10.1002/9783527678129.assep064]
20. Mckinney Lois Moore JD, Prokopetz A, Walters DB. Validated extraction and cleanup procedures for polychlorinated biphenyls and DDE in human body fluids and infant formula. Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1984 Jan 1;67(1):122-9. [DOI:10.1093/jaoac/67.1.122]
21. Araujo P. Key aspects of analytical method validation and linearity evaluation. Journal of chromatography B. 2009 Aug 1;877(23):2224-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.jchromb.2008.09.030]
22. Pandelova M, Piccinelli R, Kasham S, Henkelmann B, Leclercq C, Schramm KW. Assessment of dietary exposure to PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in infant formulae available on the EU market. Chemosphere. 2010 Nov 1;81(8):1018-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.09.014]
23. Jeong Y, Lee S, Kim S, Choi SD, Park J, Kim HJ, Lee JJ, Choi G, Choi S, Kim S, Kim SY. Occurrence and exposure assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls and organochlorine pesticides from homemade baby food in Korea. Science of the Total Environment. 2014 Feb 1;470:1370-5. [DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.071]
24. Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology, CPMP/ICH/381/95.
25. Alves AA, Rezende MJ, Hovell A, Bizzo HR, Oliveira AC, Rodrigues SV, Rezende CM. Comparison between GC-MS-SIM and GC-ECD for the determination of residues of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides in Brazilian citrus essential oils. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 2012 Feb;23(2):306-14. [DOI:10.1590/S0103-50532012000200017]
26. SANTE/11945. Guidance document on analytical quality control and validation procedures for pesticide residues analysis in food and feed; 2015. https://ec.europa.eu/food/sites/food/files/plant/docs/pesticides_mrl_guidelines_wrkdoc_11945
27. Hajšlová J, Zrostlıkova J. Matrix effects in (ultra) trace analysis of pesticide residues in food and biotic matrices. Journal of Chromatography A. 2003 Jun 6;1000(1-2):181-97. [DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00539-9]
28. Hajšlová J, Zrostlıkova J. Matrix effects in (ultra) trace analysis of pesticide residues in food and biotic matrices. Journal of Chromatography A. 2003 Jun 6;1000(1-2):181-97. [DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)00539-9]
29. Anastassiades M, Maštovská K, Lehotay SJ. Evaluation of analyte protectants to improve gas chromatographic analysis of pesticides. Journal of Chromatography A. 2003 Oct 10;1015(1-2):163-84. [DOI:10.1016/S0021-9673(03)01208-1]
30. Maštovská K, Lehotay SJ. Evaluation of common organic solvents for gas chromatographic analysis and stability of multiclass pesticide residues. Journal of Chromatography A. 2004 Jun 25;1040(2):259-72. [DOI:10.1016/j.chroma.2004.04.017]
31. Zhang L, Yin S, Zhao Y, Shi Z, Li J, Wu Y. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and indicator polychlorinated biphenyls in human milk from China under the Stockholm Convention. Chemosphere. 2017 Dec 1;189:32-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.09.014]
32. Nardelli V, D'Amico V, Della Rovere I, Casamassima F, Marchesiello WM, Nardiello D, Quinto M. Box Behnken design-based optimized extraction of non-dioxin-like PCBs for GC-ECD and GC-MS analyses in milk samples. Emerging Contaminants. 2020 Jan 1;6:303-11. [DOI:10.1016/j.emcon.2020.08.002]
33. Pajewska-Szmyt M, Sinkiewicz-Darol E, Bernatowicz-Łojko U, Kowalkowski T, Gadzała-Kopciuch R, Buszewski B. QuEChERS extraction coupled to GC-MS for a fast determination of polychlorinated biphenyls in breast milk from Polish women. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2019 Oct;26(30):30988-99. [DOI:10.1007/s11356-019-06201-y]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Yazdi F, Yazdi M H, Eidi A, Shoeibi S. A Useful Method with Appropriate Recovery and High Accuracy in Simultaneous Analysis of 12 Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Cereal-Based Baby Foods Using Gas Chromatography-Electron Capture Detector. Nutr Food Sci Res 2022; 9 (1) :41-48
URL: http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-517-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 9, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2022) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.05 seconds with 30 queries by YEKTAWEB 4570