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:: Volume 6, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2019) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2019, 6(2): 29-36 Back to browse issues page
Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Lead and Cadmium in Milks from East of Iran Using Monte Carlo Simulation Method
Masoumeh Madani-Tonekaboni , Neda Sadat aghayan , Roshanak Rafiei Nazari , Solmaz Mirzamohammadi , Anna Abdolshahi , Negar Abbasi-bastami , Majid Arabameri
Vice-chancellery of Food and drug, Shahroud University of Medical Sciences, Shahroud, Iran , majid.arabamerei@gmail.com
Abstract:   (4581 Views)
Background and Objectives: Milk is an important component of the human diet. Exposure to heavy metals through dairy consumption of contaminated foods endangers human health. The aim of this study was to assess concentrations of lead and cadmium in raw milk samples from east of Iran and their safety risks.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 54 raw milk samples from five regions were selected by cluster sampling and 20 samples of various popular brands of pasteurized milks were randomly purchased from supermarkets in east of Iran. Samples were digested in laboratory using acid digestion method. Concentrations of elements were calculated using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) approach was used to assess safety risks and investigate noncarcinogenic effects of lead and cadmium.
Results: The mean concentrations of lead and cadmium in raw milks included 38.15 and 4.67 ±0.001 μg/kg, respectively. The mean concentrations of lead and cadmium in pasteurized milk included 48.49 ±0.001 and 6.84 ±0.001 μg/kg, respectively. Moreover, the target hazard quotient (THQ) for adults and children in all groups were reported within the safe limits. There were hence no possible risks of exposure to lead and cadmium as results of raw and pasteurized milk consumptions.
Conclusions: Lead and cadmium levels did not exceed maximum levels (MLs) in any samples of raw and pasteurized milks. Persistent monitoring is a critical action to protect consumers from contaminated foods. The health risk assessment pursuant to Monte Carlo simulation approach demonstrated that children and adults were not at impressive health risk
(THQ < 1).
Keywords: Lead, Cadmium, Heavy metals, Raw milk, Pasteurized milk, East of Iran
Full-Text [PDF 875 kb]   (1606 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2018/02/15 | Accepted: 2019/08/4 | Published: 2019/08/4
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Madani-Tonekaboni M, Sadat aghayan N, Rafiei Nazari R, Mirzamohammadi S, Abdolshahi A, Abbasi-bastami N et al . Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Lead and Cadmium in Milks from East of Iran Using Monte Carlo Simulation Method. Nutr Food Sci Res 2019; 6 (2) :29-36
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Volume 6, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2019) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
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