[Home ] [Archive]    
:: Main :: Current Issue :: Archive :: Search :: Submit :: Contact ::
Main Menu
Journal Information::
Articles archive::
Indexing Sources::
For Authors::
Publication ethics::
Contact us::
Site Facilities::
Creative Commons License

This Journal under a

Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Open Access Policy




Registered in



:: Volume 5, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2018) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2018, 5(2): 19-28 Back to browse issues page
Improving Oxidative Stability of Virgin Olive Oil: Comparison of Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil with α-Tocopherol
Malihe Keramat , Mohammad-Taghi Golmakani , Mahmoud Aminlari , Seyed Shahram Shekarforoush
Shiraz University , golmakani@shirazu.ac.ir
Abstract:   (4345 Views)
Background and Objectives: Virgin olive oil is a vastly consumed product, with widespread appreciation for its good nutritional and health properties. However, oxidation can reduce its quality. The aim of this study was to investigate how the essential oil of Zataria multiflora (Shirazi thyme) can contribute to the prevention of virgin olive oil oxidation in comparison with the actions of α-tocopherol and BHT. Furthermore, the synergistic activities of citric acid with BHT, Z. multiflora essential oil, and α-tocopherol were investigated.
Materials and Methods: Antioxidant activity of the essential oil was determined using radical scavenging capacity and reducing power assays. Virgin olive oil samples were stored at 60±1 °C in closed amber bottles for 16 days. Oxidation levels of samples were determined by measuring peroxide, anisidine, TOTOX, K232, K268 values, and chlorophyll and carotenoid contents of the samples during the storage period.
Results: Z. multiflora essential oil exhibited a significant radical scavenging capacity and reducing power. Peroxide, anisidine, TOTOX, K232, and K268 values of samples containing Z. multiflora essential oil were significantly lower than those of the control group (without antioxidants). Z. multiflora essential oil reduced the oxidation of virgin olive oil to the same extent as BHT did. Z. multiflora essential oil was more effective than α-tocopherol. The synergistic activities between citric acid and the various compounds, i.e. BHT, Z. multiflora essential oil, and α-tocopherol were 2.42%, 4.74%, 1.28% respectively.
Conclusions: In general, Z. multiflora essential oil can be considered as natural antioxidant for the stabilization of virgin olive oil against oxidation.
Keywords: Accelerated storage, Oxidation, Virgin olive oil, Zataria multiflora
Full-Text [PDF 629 kb]   (1624 Downloads)    
Article type: Research | Subject: Food Science
Received: 2017/09/16 | Accepted: 2018/03/10 | Published: 2018/03/10
1. Velasco J, Dobarganes C. Oxidative stability of virgin olive oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2002; 104: 661-76. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/10<661::AID-EJLT661>3.0.CO;2-D [DOI:10.1002/1438-9312(200210)104:9/103.0.CO;2-D]
2. Morales MT, Przybylski R. Olive Oil Oxidation. In: Harwood J, Aparicio R, editors. Handbook of Olive Oil. New York: Springer; 2013: 479-522. [DOI:10.1007/978-1-4614-7777-8_13]
3. Basaga H, Tekkaya C, Acikel F, Antioxidative and free radical scavenging properties of rosemary extract. LWT-Food Sci Tech 1997; 30: 105-108. [DOI:10.1006/fstl.1996.0127]
4. Allam, SS, Mohamed, HMA, Thermal stability of some commercial natural and synthetic antioxidants and their mixtures. J Food Lipids 2002; 9: 277-293. [DOI:10.1111/j.1745-4522.2002.tb00226.x]
5. Sanhueza J, Nieto S, Valenzuela, A, Thermal stability of some commercial synthetic antioxidants. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2000; 77: 933-936. [DOI:10.1007/s11746-000-0147-9]
6. Farag R, Badei A, El Baroty G, Palta J, Nobel P, Influence of thyme and clove essential oils on cottonseed oil oxidation J Am Oil Chem Soc 1989; 66: 800-804. [DOI:10.1007/BF02653671]
7. Yanishlieva NV, Marinova EM. Antioxidative effectiveness of some natural antioxidants in sunflower oil. Zeitschrift für Lebensmittel-Untersuchung und Forschung 1996; 203:220-3. [DOI:10.1007/BF01192867]
8. Fazeli MR, Amin G, Attari MMA, Ashtiani H, Jamalifar H, Samadi N. Antimicrobial activities of Iranian sumac and avishan-e shirazi (Zataria multiflora) against some food-borne bacteria. Food Cont 2007; 18: 646-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.03.002]
9. Golmakani MT, Rezaei K. Microwave‐assisted hydrodistillation of essential oil from Zataria multiflora Boiss. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2008; 110: 448-54. [DOI:10.1002/ejlt.200700239]
10. Mastelic J, Jerkovic I, Blažević I, Poljak-Blaži M, Borović S, Ivančić-Baće I, et al. Comparative study on the antioxidant and biological activities of carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol derivatives. J Agric Food Chem 2008; 56: 3989-96. [DOI:10.1021/jf073272v]
11. Viuda‐Martos M, Ruiz Navajas Y, Sánchez Zapata E, Fernández‐López J, Pérez‐Álvarez JA. Antioxidant activity of essential oils of five spice plants widely used in a Mediterranean diet. Flav Frag J. 2010; 25: 13-9. [DOI:10.1002/ffj.1951]
12. Hashemi MB, Niakousari M, Saharkhiz MJ, Eskandari MH. Stabilization of sunflower oil with Carum copticum Benth & Hook essential oil. J food Sci Tech 2014; 51: 142-7. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-011-0484-z]
13. Asensio CM, Nepote V, Grosso NR. Chemical Stability of Extra‐Virgin Olive Oil Added with Oregano Essential Oil. J Food Sci 2011; 76: S445-S50. [DOI:10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02332.x]
14. Hraš AR, Hadolin M, Knez Ž, Bauman D. Comparison of antioxidative and synergistic effects of rosemary extract with α-tocopherol, ascorbyl palmitate and citric acid in sunflower oil. Food Chem 2000; 71: 229-33. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(00)00161-8]
15. Bellik Y, Selles SMA. In vitro synergistic antioxidant activity of honey-Mentha spicata combination. Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization 2017; 11: 1-8. [DOI:10.1007/s11694-016-9377-1]
16. Khajehie N, Golmakani MT, Eblaghi M, Eskandari MH. Evaluating the effects of microwave-assisted hydrodistillation on antifungal and radical scavenging activities of oliveria decumbens and chaerophyllum macropodum essential oils. J Food Prot 2017; 80: 783-791. [DOI:10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-16-428]
17. Farahmand M, Golmakani MT, Mesbahi G, Farahnaky A. Investigating the effects of large‐scale processing on phytochemicals and antioxidant activity of pomegranate juice. J Food Process Preserv 2016; DOI: 10.1111/jfpp.12792. [DOI:10.1111/jfpp.12792]
18. Apak R, Güçlü K, Özyürek M, Çelik SE. Mechanism of antioxidant capacity assays and the CUPRAC (cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity) assay. Microchimica Acta 2008; 160: 413-9. [DOI:10.1007/s00604-007-0777-0]
19. AOCS. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 5th ed. Champaign, Illinois: AOCS Press 2000.
20. Golmakani MT, Mendiola JA, Rezaei K, Ibá-ez E. Expanded ethanol with CO2 and pressurized ethyl lactate to obtain fractions enriched in γ-Linolenic Acid from Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina). J Supercrit Fluid 2012; 62:109-15. [DOI:10.1016/j.supflu.2011.11.026]
21. Kyriakidis NB, Katsiloulis T. Calculation of iodine value from measurements of fatty acid methyl esters of some oils: comparison with the relevant American oil chemists society method. J Am Oil Chem Soc 2000; 77: 1235-8. [DOI:10.1007/s11746-000-0193-3]
22. Casal S, Malheiro R, Sendas A, Oliveira BP, Pereira JA. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48: 2972-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2010.07.036]
23. Minguez-Mosquera MI, Rejano-Navarro L, Gandul-Rojas B, SanchezGomez AH, Garrido-Fernandez J. Color-pigment correlation in virgin olive oil. J Am Oil Chem Soc 1991; 68: 332-6. [DOI:10.1007/BF02657688]
24. Bandonien D, Pukalskas A, Venskutonis P, Gruzdien D. Preliminary screening of antioxidant activity of some plant extracts in rapeseed oil. Food Res Int 2000; 33:785-91. [DOI:10.1016/S0963-9969(00)00084-3]
25. Antolovich M, Prenzler PD, Patsalides E, McDonald S, Robards K. Methods for testing antioxidant activity. Analyst 2002; 127: 183-98. [DOI:10.1039/b009171p]
26. Frankel EN, Lipid Oxidation, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing Limited 2005. [DOI:10.1533/9780857097927]
27. Saei-Dehkordi SS, Tajik H, Moradi M, Khalighi-Sigaroodi F. Chemical composition of essential oils in Zataria multiflora Boiss. from different parts of Iran and their radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. Food Chem Toxicol 2010; 48: 1562-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2010.03.025]
28. Mishra PK, Singh P, Prakash B, Kedia A, Dubey NK. Chanotiya C, Assessing essential oil components as plant-based preservatives against fungi that deteriorate herbal raw materials. Internat Biodet Biodeg 2013; 80: 16-21. [DOI:10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.12.017]
29. Yanishlieva NV, Marinova EM, Gordon MH, Raneva VG. Antioxidant activity and mechanism of action of thymol and carvacrol in two lipid systems. Food Chem 1999; 64: 59-66. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(98)00086-7]
30. Sharififar F, Moshafi M, Mansouri S, Khodashenas M, Khoshnoodi M, In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and methanol extract of endemic Zataria multiflora Boiss. Food Control 2007; 18: 800-805. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2006.04.002]
31. Zangiabadi M, Sahari M, Barzegar M, Naghdi Badi H, Zataria multiflora and Bunium persicum essential oils as two natural antioxidants. J Med Plants 2012; 1: 8-21.
32. IOC. Trade Standard Applying to Olive Oils and Olive-pomace oils. Decision COI/T.15/NC No 3/Rev. 8. Madrid, Spain: International Olive Council 2015.
33. Simandi B, Hajdu V, Peredi K, Czukor B, Nobik‐Kovacs A, Kery A. Antioxidant activity of pilot‐plant alcoholic and supercritical carbon dioxide extracts of thyme. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2001; 103:355-8. https://doi.org/10.1002/1438-9312(200106)103:6<355::AID-EJLT355>3.0.CO;2-# [DOI:10.1002/1438-9312(200106)103:63.0.CO;2-#]
34. Samotyja U, Małecka M. Antioxidant activity of blackcurrant seeds extract and rosemary extracts in soybean oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 2010; 112:1331-6. [DOI:10.1002/ejlt.201000042]
35. Vahidyan H, Sahari M, Barzegar M, Naghdi Badi H, Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Satureja hortensis L. essential oils as two natural antioxidants in mayonnaise formulated with linseed oil. J Med Plants 2012; 3:69-79.
36. Ruberto G, Baratta MT. Antioxidant activity of selected essential oil components in two lipid model systems. Food Chem 2000; 69: 167-74. [DOI:10.1016/S0308-8146(99)00247-2]
37. Ayadi M, Grati-Kamoun N, Attia H. Physico-chemical change and heat stability of extra virgin olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Food Chem Toxicol 2009; 47:2613-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.fct.2009.07.024]
38. Gómez-Alonso S, Mancebo-Campos V, Salvador MD, Fregapane G. Evolution of major and minor components and oxidation indices of virgin olive oil during 21 months storage at room temperature. Food Chem 2007; 100:36-42. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2005.09.006]
Send email to the article author

Add your comments about this article
Your username or Email:


XML     Print

Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Keramat M, Golmakani M, Aminlari M, Shekarforoush S S. Improving Oxidative Stability of Virgin Olive Oil: Comparison of Zataria Multiflora Essential Oil with α-Tocopherol . Nutr Food Sci Res 2018; 5 (2) :19-28
URL: http://nfsr.sbmu.ac.ir/article-1-268-en.html

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2018) Back to browse issues page
Nutrition and Food Sciences Research
Persian site map - English site map - Created in 0.06 seconds with 45 queries by YEKTAWEB 4642