:: Volume 7, Issue 4 (Oct-Dec 2020) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2020, 7(4): 13-18 Back to browse issues page
Associations between Dietary Diversity Scores and Obesity Phenotypes in Women
Golnoosh Goodarzi , Seyyed Ali Keshavarz , Firoozeh Hosseini-Esfahani , Asal Ataie-Jafari
Department of Nutrition, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (293 Views)
Background and Objectives: Dietary diversity is a proxy measurement of overall dietary quality. The aim of this study was to assess relationships between dietary diversity score and obesity phenotypes in women, Tehran, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 197 women aged ≥ 25 years from Municipal District 7 of Tehran were participated. Food intakes were calculated using semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaires. Dietary diversity score was calculated using healthy food diversity score. Anthropometric parameters and physical activities were measured based on the standard methods. Multivariate logistic regression was used to show possible associations between the dietary diversity scores and the obesity phenotypes.
Results: The mean (±standard deviation) age of the participants was 37.0 y ±7.41. The mean weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio were 78.3 kg ±1.2, 27.1 kg/m2 ±34, 92.5 cm ±14.4,
0.87 ±23.4 and 0.57 ±6.97; respectively. The mean (±SD) of dietary diversity score was 0.27 ±16.73. No relationships were seen between the dietary diversity scores and general obesity, high waist-to-hip ratios and waist-to-height ratios. However, risks of high waist circumferences decreased with increasing dietary diversity score ]OR(CI):  0.26 (0.09–0.75); p-trend = 0.04[.
Conclusions: In conclusion, inverse relationships were seen between the abdominal obesity and the dietary diversity scores in women in Tehran. Therefore, more various diets are recommended for the prevention of obesity in women.
Keywords: Dietary diversity score, Abdominal obesity, Overweight, women, Iran
Full-Text [PDF 484 kb]   (132 Downloads)    
Protocol Study: Research | Subject: nutrition
Received: 2020/07/28 | Accepted: 2020/09/7 | Published: 2020/10/10
References
1. Azizi F, Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P. Trends in overweight, obesity and central fat accumulation among Tehranian adults between 1998-1999 and 2001-2002: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Ann Nutr Metab 2005;49:3-8. [DOI:10.1159/000084171]
2. Ogden CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, McDowell MA, Tabak CJ, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States, 1999-2004. Jama 2006;295(13):1549-55. [DOI:10.1001/jama.295.13.1549]
3. Kelishadi R, Safiri S, Djalalinia S, Miranzadeh S, Motlagh ME, Asayesh H, et al. Health-Related Quality of Life according to the Socioeconomic Status of Living Areas in Iranian Children and Adolescents: Weight Disorders Survey. Iran J Med Sci 2019;44(1):18-27.
4. Wei M, Gaskill SP, Haffner SM, Stern MP. Waist circumference as the best predictor of non-insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus compared to BMI, WHR other anthropometric measurements in Mexican Americans: a 7-year prospective study. Obes Res 1997; 5:16-23. [DOI:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1997.tb00278.x]
5. Popkin BM, Adair LS, Ng SW. Global nutrition transition and the pandemic of obesity in developing countries. Nutr reviews 2012;70(1):3-21. [DOI:10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00456.x]
6. Kelishadi R. Childhood overweight, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries. Epidemiol reviews. 2007;29(1):62-76. [DOI:10.1093/epirev/mxm003]
7. Vaisi-Raygani, A., Mohammadi, M., Jalali, R. et al. The prevalence of obesity in older adults in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Geriatr 19, 371 (2019). [DOI:10.1186/s12877-019-1396-4]
8. Serra-Majem L, Bautista-Castano I. Etiology of obesity: two "key issues" and other emerging factors. Nutr Hosp. 2013;28 Suppl 5:32-43.
9. Hedley AA, Ogden CL, Johnson CL, Carroll MD, Curtin LR, Flegal KM. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US children, adolescents, and adults, 1999-2002. Jama 2004;291(23):2847-50. [DOI:10.1001/jama.291.23.2847]
10. Jayawardena R, Byrne NM, Soares MJ, Katulanda P, Yadav B, Hills AP. High dietary diversity is associated with obesity in Sri Lankan adults: an evaluation of three dietary scores. BMC public health. 2013;13(1):314. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2458-13-314]
11. Hatloy A, Torheim LE, Oshaug A. Food variety - a good indicator of nutritional adequacy of the diet? A case study from an urban area in Mali, West Africa. Eur J Clin Nutr 1998 Dec; 52(12): 891-8 22. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1600662]
12. Kennedy ET, Ohls J, Carlson S, Fleming K. The Healthy Eating Index: design and applications. J Am Diet Assoc 1995 Oct; 95(10): 1103-8. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-8223(95)00300-2]
13. 13 - Vadiveloo M, Dixon LB, Mijanovich T, Elbel B, Parekh N. Development and evaluation of the US Healthy Food Diversity index. Br J Nutr 2014;112(9):1562-74. [DOI:10.1017/S0007114514002049]
14. Karimbeiki R, Pourmasoumi M, Feizi A, Abbasi B, Hadi A, Rafie N, et al. Higher dietary diversity score is associated with obesity: a case-control study. Public health 2018;157:127-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2018.01.028]
15. Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth. Public Health Nutr. 2011;14(1):62-9. [DOI:10.1017/S1368980010000522]
16. Azadbakht L, Zaribaf F, Haghighatdoost F, Esmaillzadeh A. Association of dietary diversity score with obesity and central adiposity among female university students in Isfahan, Iran. Iran J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2010; 5 (2) :27-34.
17. Mirmiran P, Esfahani FH, Mehrabi Y, Hedayati M, Azizi F. Reliability and relative validity of an FFQ for nutrients in the Tehran lipid and glucose study. Public Health Nutr 2010;13:654-62. [DOI:10.1017/S1368980009991698]
18. Food composition table (FCT). Food and Nutrition Information Center, US Department of Agriculture, www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/foodcomp,2010.
19. Azar M. Food Composition Table of Iran. Tehran: National Nutrition and Food Research Institute UeS.
20. Ghaffarpour M, Houshiar-Rad A, Kianfar H. The manual for household measures, cooking yields factors and edible portion of foods. Tehran: Keshaverzi Press, 1999 [In Persian].
21. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Expert panel on detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood cholesterol in adults: Adult Treatment Panel III. Circulation 2002;106: 3143-421 [DOI:10.1161/circ.106.25.3143]
22. Moslehi N, Ehsani B, Mirmiran P, Hojjat P, Azizi F. Association of dietary proportions of macronutrients with visceral adiposity index: non-substitution and iso-energetic substitution models in a prospective study. Nutrients 2015;7(10):8859-70. [DOI:10.3390/nu7105436]
23. Moghaddam, M. H. B., Aghdam, F. B., Jafarabadi, M. A., Allahverdipour, H., Nikookhelat, S. D., & Safarpour, S. (2018). The Iranian Version of IPAQ in Iran: Content and Construct Validity, Factor Structure, Internal Consistency and Stability. World Appl Sci J 18(8), 1073-1080.
24. Spss I. IBM SPSS statistics version 21. Boston, Mass: International Business Machines Corp. 2012;126.
25. Drewnowski A, Renderson SA, Driscoll A, Rolls BJ. The Dietary Variety Score: assessing diet quality in healthy young and older adults. J Am Diet Assoc 1997; 97: 266-71. [DOI:10.1016/S0002-8223(97)00070-9]
26. Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Variety scores of food groups contribute to the specific nutrient adequacy in Tehranian men. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005; 59: 1233-40 [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602234]
27. Poorrezaeian M, Siassi F, Qorbani M, Karimi J, Koohdani F, Asayesh H, et al. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women. Psychiatry Res 2015; 230: 622-7. [DOI:10.1016/j.psychres.2015.10.016]
28. Wahlqvist ML, Lo CS, Myers KA. Food variety is associated with less macrovascular disease in those with type II diabetes and their healthy controls. J Am Coll Nutr 1989;8(6):515-23. [DOI:10.1080/07315724.1989.10720321]
29. Azadbakht L, Zaribaf F, Haghighatdoost F, Esmaillzadeh A. Association of dietary diversity score with obesity and central adiposity among female university students in Isfahan, Iran. Iran J Nutr Sci Food Technol 2010;5(2):27-34.
30. Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary diversity score is related to obesity and abdominal adiposity among Iranian female youth. Public Health Nutr 2011; 14: 62-9. [DOI:10.1017/S1368980010000522]
31. Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Dietary diversity score is favorably associated with the metabolic syndrome in Tehranian adults. Int J Obes 2005; 29: 1361-7. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803029]
32. Ajani S. An assessment of dietary diversity in six Nigerian States. Afr J Biomed Res 2010; 13: 161-7.
33. Azadbakht L, Mirmiran P, Esmaillzadeh A, Azizi F. Dietary diversity score and cardiovascular risk factors in Tehranian adults. Public Health Nutr 2006; 9: 728-36. [DOI:10.1079/PHN2005887]
34. Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L, Esmaillzadeh A, Azizi F. Dietary diversity score in adolescents-a good indicator of the nutritional adequacy of diets: Tehran lipid and glucose study. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr 2004; 13: 56-60.
35. Karimbeiki R, Pourmasoumi M, Feizi A, Abbasi B, Hadi A, Rafie N, et al. Higher dietary diversity score is associated with obesity: a case-control study. Public Health 2018;157:127-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2018.01.028]
36. Mirmiran P, Azadbakht L, Azizi F. Dietary diversity within food groups: an indicator of specific nutrient adequacy in Tehranian women. J Am Coll Nutr 2006; 25(4):354-61. [DOI:10.1080/07315724.2006.10719546]
37. Steyn N, Nel J, Nantel G, Kennedy G, Labradarios D. Food variety and dietary diversity scores; are they good indicators of dietary adequacy? Public Health Nutr 2006;9:644-50. [DOI:10.1079/PHN2005912]
38. Esmaillzadeh A, Kimiagar M, Mehrabi Y, Azadbakht L, Hu FB, Willett WC. Fruit and vegetable intakes, C-reactive protein and the metabolic syndrome. Am J Clin Nutr 2006; 84: 1489-97. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/84.6.1489]
39. Esmaillzadeh A, Mirmiran P, Azizi F. Whole-grain consumption and the metabolic syndrome: a favorable association in Tehranian adults. Eur J Clin Nutr 2005;59:353-62. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602080]
40. Mirmiran P, Hosseini Esfahani F, Mehrabi Y, Hedayati M, Azizi F. Reliability and relative validity of an FFQ for nutrients in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study. Public Health Nutr 2010; 13: 654-62. [DOI:10.1017/S1368980009991698]
41. Kant AK, Graubard BI. A comparison of three dietary pattern indexes for predicting biomarkers of diet and disease. J Am Coll Nutr 2005; 24: 294-303. [DOI:10.1080/07315724.2005.10719477]



XML     Print



Volume 7, Issue 4 (Oct-Dec 2020) Back to browse issues page