:: Volume 5, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2018) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2018, 5(1): 9-14 Back to browse issues page
Hypovitaminosis D in Adults Living in a Sunny City: Relation to Some Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, National Food and Nutrition Surveillance
Bahareh Nikooyeh , Majid Hajifaraji , Amir-Hossein Yarparvar , Zahra Abdollahi , Mahnoosh Sahebdel , Amaneh Mosayebi Dehkordi , Dena Norouzi , Seyed Masoumeh Taghizadeh , Ali Kalayi , Nastaran Shariatzadeh , Maliheh Zahedirad , Tirang Neyestani
Laboratory of Nutrition Research, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute and Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Abstract:   (744 Views)
Background and Objectives: Reports indicate that hypovitaminosis D is extremely common worldwide and is re-emerging as a major health problem globally. In the present study, the main objectives were: 1) to examine whether healthy men and women living in Ahvaz have adequate vitamin D status; 2) to assess association between vitamin D status and some cardiometabolic risk factors.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which was part of the National Food and Nutrition Surveillance (NFNS). A total of 235 apparently healthy women and men aged 20-60 met the inclusion criteria from the city of Ahvaz (latitude 31.3oN, 48.6oE). Anthropometric measurements including weight and height were taken. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and lipid profile including triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-C and HDL-C were evaluated.
Results: Mean circulating 25(OH)D concentration was 25.4±12.7 nmol/L, with significant difference between men and women (p=0.015). Only 6 % of the participants had sufficient levels of vitamin D (25(OH)D ≥ 50 nmol/L). Results of logistic regression analyses after controlling for gender showed that subjects with hypovitaminosis D were almost 4.38 times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with subjects with vitamin D sufficiency (OR:4.38, p:0.011). There was no significant association between serum 25(OH)D concentration and the lipid profile components.
Conclusions: We found high prevalence of hypovitaminosis D in apparently healthy adults in Ahvaz, a sunny city of Iran. Our findings suggest that high vitamin D concentrations among the adult population are associated with a substantial decrease in body mass index. However, there was no association with the lipid profile components.
Keywords: Vitamin D, Ahvaz, Cardiometabolic risk factors
Full-Text [PDF 118 kb]   (298 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: General
Received: 2017/09/25 | Accepted: 2018/01/30 | Published: 2018/01/30
References
1. Rajakumar K. Vitamin D, cod-liver oil, sunlight, and rickets: a historical perspective. Pediatrics. 2003 Aug;112(2):e132-5. [DOI:10.1542/peds.112.2.e132]
2. Mithal A, Wahl DA, Bonjour J-P, Burckhardt P, Dawson-Hughes B, Eisman JA, et al. Global vitamin D status and determinants of hypovitaminosis D. Osteoporosis International. 2009;20(11):1807-20. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00198-009-1030-y [DOI:10.1007/s00198-009-0954-6]
3. Grant WB, Holick MF. Benefits and requirements of vitamin D for optimal health: a review. Altern Med Rev. 2005;10(2):94-111.
4. Binkley N, Novotny R, Krueger D, Kawahara T, Daida Y, Lensmeyer G, et al. Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;92(6):2130-5. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2006-2250]
5. Guzel R, Kozanoglu E, Guler-Uysal F, Soyupak S, Sarpel T. Vitamin D status and bone mineral density of veiled and unveiled Turkish women. Journal of women's health & gender-based medicine. 2001;10(8):765-70. [DOI:10.1089/15246090152636523]
6. Goswami R, Kochupillai N, Gupta N, Goswami D, Singh N, Dudha A. Presence of 25 (OH) D deficiency in a rural North Indian village despite abundant sunshine. JAPI. 2008;56:755-7.
7. Daly RM, Gagnon C, Lu ZX, Magliano DJ, Dunstan DW, Sikaris KA, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its determinants in Australian adults aged 25 years and older: a national, population‐based study. Clinical endocrinology. 2012;77(1):26-35. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2011.04320.x]
8. Maghbooli Z, Hossein-Nezhad A, Shafaei AR, Karimi F, Madani FS, Larijani B. Vitamin D status in mothers and their newborns in Iran. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2007;7:1. [DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-7-1]
9. Moussavi M, Heidarpour R, Aminorroaya A, Pournaghshband Z, Amini M. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in Isfahani high school students in 2004. Horm Res. 2005;64(3):144-8. [DOI:10.1159/000088588]
10. Neyestani TR, Hajifaraji M, Omidvar N, Eshraghian MR, Shariatzadeh N, Kalayi A, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in school-age children in Tehran, 2008: a red alert. Public Health Nutr. 2012 Feb;15(2):324-30. [DOI:10.1017/S1368980011000188]
11. DeLuca HF. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2004;80(6):1689S-96S. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/80.6.1689S]
12. Holick MF, Chen TC. Vitamin D deficiency: a worldwide problem with health consequences. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2008;87(4):1080S-6S.
13. Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes care. 2004;27(12):2813-8. [DOI:10.2337/diacare.27.12.2813]
14. Hyppönen E, Boucher BJ, Berry DJ, Power C. 25-hydroxyvitamin D, IGF-1, and metabolic syndrome at 45 years of age. Diabetes. 2008;57(2):298-305. [DOI:10.2337/db07-1122]
15. Thacher TD, Clarke BL, editors. Vitamin D insufficiency. Mayo Clinic Proceedings; 2011: Elsevier.
16. Lu H-K, Zhang Z, Ke Y-H, He J-W, Fu W-Z, Zhang C-Q, et al. High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in China: relationship with the levels of parathyroid hormone and markers of bone turnover. PloS one. 2012;7(11):e47264. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium and Vitamin D. Washington, DC: National Academies Press; 2011.
17. Badawi A, Arora P, Sadoun E, Al-Thani A-A, Al Thani MH. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in Qatar: a systematic review. Journal of public health research. 2012;1(3):229. [DOI:10.4081/jphr.2012.e36]
18. Schwalfenberg G, Genuis S, Hiltz M. Addressing vitamin D deficiency in Canada: a public health innovation whose time has come. Public health. 2010;124(6):350-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.puhe.2010.03.003]
19. Binkley N, Novotny R, Krueger D, Kawahara T, Daida YG, Lensmeyer G, et al. Low vitamin D status despite abundant sun exposure. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2007;92(6):2130-5. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2006-2250]
20. van Dam RM, Snijder MB, Dekker JM, Stehouwer CD, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, et al. Potentially modifiable determinants of vitamin D status in an older population in the Netherlands: the Hoorn Study. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2007;85(3):755-61.
21. Looker AC, Dawson-Hughes B, Calvo M, Gunter E, Sahyoun N. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status of adolescents and adults in two seasonal subpopulations from NHANES III. Bone. 2002;30(5):771-7. [DOI:10.1016/S8756-3282(02)00692-0]
22. Agarwal K, Mughal M, Upadhyay P, Berry J, Mawer E, Puliyel J. The impact of atmospheric pollution on vitamin D status of infants and toddlers in Delhi, India. Archives of disease in childhood. 2002;87(2):111-3. [DOI:10.1136/adc.87.2.111]
23. Snijder MB, van Dam RM, Visser M, Deeg DJ, Dekker JM, Bouter LM, et al. Adiposity in relation to vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone levels: a population-based study in older men and women. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 2005;90(7):4119-23. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2005-0216]
24. Wortsman J, Matsuoka LY, Chen TC, Lu Z, Holick MF. Decreased bioavailability of vitamin D in obesity. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2000;72(3):690-3.
25. Reis JP, von Mühlen D, Miller ER, Michos ED, Appel LJ. Vitamin D status and cardiometabolic risk factors in the United States adolescent population. Pediatrics. 2009;124(3):e371-e9. [DOI:10.1542/peds.2009-0213]
26. Barja-Fernández S, Aguilera CM, Martínez-Silva I, Vazquez R, Gil-Campos M, Olza J, et al. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D levels of children are inversely related to adiposity assessed by body mass index. Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry. 2017:1-8.
27. Cordeiro A, Santos A, Bernardes M, Ramalho A, Martins MJ. Vitamin D metabolism in human adipose tissue: could it explain low vitamin D status in obesity? Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation. 2017. [DOI:10.1515/hmbci-2017-0003]
28. Zemel MB. Regulation of adiposity and obesity risk by dietary calcium: mechanisms and implications. Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 2002;21(2):146S-51S. [DOI:10.1080/07315724.2002.10719212]
29. McCarty M, Thomas C. PTH excess may promote weight gain by impeding catecholamine-induced lipolysis-implications for the impact of calcium, vitamin D, and alcohol on body weight. Medical hypotheses. 2003;61(5):535-42. [DOI:10.1016/S0306-9877(03)00227-5]
30. Jorde R, Figenschau Y, Hutchinson M, Emaus N, Grimnes G. High serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations are associated with a favorable serum lipid profile. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Dec;64(12):1457-64. [DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2010.176]
31. Birken CS, Lebovic G, Anderson LN, McCrindle BW, Mamdani M, Kandasamy S, et al. Association between Vitamin D and Circulating Lipids in Early Childhood. PLoS One. 2015;10(7):e0131938. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131938]
32. Sun X, Cao ZB, Tanisawa K, Ito T, Oshima S, Ishimi Y, et al. Associations between the Serum 25(OH)D Concentration and Lipid Profiles in Japanese Men. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2015;22(4):355-62. [DOI:10.5551/jat.26070]
33. Lepsch J, Eshriqui I, Farias DR, Vaz JS, Cunha Figueiredo AC, Adegboye AR, et al. Association between early pregnancy vitamin D status and changes in serum lipid profiles throughout pregnancy. Metabolism. 2017 May;70:85-97. [DOI:10.1016/j.metabol.2017.02.004]
34. Ponda MP, Huang X, Odeh MA, Breslow JL, Kaufman HW. Vitamin D may not improve lipid levels: a serial clinical laboratory data study. Circulation. 2012 Jul 17;126(3):270-7. [DOI:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.111.077875]
35. Nkooyeh B, Neyestani T. Cholesterol and vitamin D: how the 'mother'and 'daughter'molecules interact. Handbook of cholesterol: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2016. p. 256-65.



XML     Print



Volume 5, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2018) Back to browse issues page