:: Volume 5, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2018) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2018, 5(2): 47-51 Back to browse issues page
Is Trans Fatty Acid Still an Issue for Policy Makers in Iran? A Technical Report
Zahra Saghafi , Azizollaah Zargaraan , Mahnaz Tabibiazar , Hedayat Hosseini
Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences, Food Science and Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran , hedayat.s.hosseini@gmail.com
Abstract:   (4584 Views)
In recent decades, the oil industry has changed its direction toward vegetable oil use instead of animal fats due to various reasons such as a small numbers of animal fat resources and high saturated fatty acids content in animal fats. Therefore, different modification processes have been used to alter the physicochemical properties of vegetable oils, which lack functionality and oxidative stability in their native form. Hydrogenation process is a common way to produce plastic fats with different functionality in order to formulate different bakery fats, spreads and margarines. Unfortunately, formation of trans fatty acids (TFAs), which have several negative impacts on human health, is the consequence of this process. Therefore, international and national organizations have established legislations and policies to reduce or preferably eliminate TFAs from hydrogenated vegetable oils.
The objective of this study is firstly to review international and national legislations as well as the current status of TFAs in food products in Iran and worldwide, to discuss the gaps. Secondly, the strategies to address these gaps will be proposed. Through this article we will show that despite great efforts having been made in Iran, there is still room to make the documented policies and their conformities with each other to minimize the amount of TFAs in food products much more efficient.  
Keywords: Trans fatty acids, Policy, Fat, Health
Full-Text [PDF 855 kb]   (2481 Downloads)    
Article type: Short Communications | Subject: Nutrition
Received: 2017/10/4 | Accepted: 2018/03/10 | Published: 2018/03/10
1. Ascherio A, Willett WC. Health effects of trans fatty acids. Am J Clin Nutr. 1997;66(4):1006S-10S. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/66.4.1006S]
2. Ye Y, Wagh A, Martini S. Using high intensity ultrasound as a tool to change the functional properties of interesterified soybean oil. J Agric Food Chem 2011;59(19):10712-22. [DOI:10.1021/jf202495b]
3. Lopez-Garcia E, Schulze MB, Meigs JB, Manson JE, Rifai N, Stampfer MJ, et al. Consumption of trans fatty acids is related to plasma biomarkers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. J Nutr. 2005;135(3):562-6. [DOI:10.1093/jn/135.3.562]
4. Mozaffarian D, Stampfer MJ. Removing industrial trans fat from foods. BMJ. 2010 Apr 15;340:c1826 [DOI:10.1136/bmj.c1826]
5. Tsutsui W, Fujioka Y. Is the Association between Dietary Trans Fatty Acids and Insulin Resistance Remarkable in Japan? J Atheroscler Thromb. 2017 Dec 1; 24(12): 1199–1201 [DOI:10.5551/jat.ED080]
6. Mozaffarian D, Aro A, Willett W. Health effects of trans-fatty acids: experimental and observational evidence. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63:S5-S21. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602973]
7. Dhaka V, Gulia N, Ahlawat KS, Khatkar BS. Trans fats—sources, health risks and alternative approach-A review. J Food Sci Technol. 2011;48(5):534-41. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-010-0225-8]
8. Ackman R, Mag T. Trans fatty acids and the potential for less in technical products. trans Fatty Acids in Human Nutrition The Oily Press Ltd, Dundee, Scotland. 1998:35-58.
9. Mozaffarian D, Clarke R. Quantitative effects on cardiovascular risk factors and coronary heart disease risk of replacing partially hydrogenated vegetable oils with other fats and oils. Eur J Clin Nutr 2009; 63:S22-S33 [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602976]
10. Weiland SK, von Mutius E, HiJsing A, Asher MI, Committee IS. Intake of trans fatty acids and prevalence of childhood asthma and allergies in Europe. The Lancet. 1999;353(9169):2040-1. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(99)01609-8]
11. Weggemans RM, Rudrum M, Trautwein EA. Intake of ruminant versus industrial trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease–what is the evidence? Eur J lipid Sci Technol. 2004;106(6):390-7. [DOI:10.1002/ejlt.200300932]
12. List GR, Pelloso T. Zero/Low Trans Margarine, Spreads, and Shortening. Urbana. 512007. p. 2007.
13. Fattahi-far E, Sahari MA, Barzegar M Interesterification of tea seed oil and its application in margarine production. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society 2006;83 (10):841-845 [DOI:10.1007/s11746-006-5035-9]
14. Wang FC, Gravelle AJ, Blake AI, Marangoni AG. Novel trans fat replacement strategies. Current Opinion in Food Science. 2016;7:27-34. [DOI:10.1016/j.cofs.2015.08.006]
15. Simopoulos A. The scientific basis of the" Goals": what can be done now? J Am Dent Assoc. 1979;74(5):539-42.
16. Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. The Lancet. 2012;380(9859):2095-128. [DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61728-0]
17. Dinç S, Javidipour I, Özbas ÖÖ, Tekin A. Utilization of zero-trans non-interesterified and interesterified shortenings in cookie production. J Food Sci and Technol. 2014;51(2):365-70. [DOI:10.1007/s13197-011-0506-x]
18. Food, Drug Administration H. Food labeling: trans fatty acids in nutrition labeling, nutrient content claims, and health claims. Final rule. Federal Register. 2003;68(133):41433.
19. L'abbé MR, Stender S, Skeaff C, Tavella M. Approaches to removing trans fats from the food supply in industrialized and developing countries. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(S2):S50. [DOI:10.1038/ejcn.2009.14]
20. Ratzan SC, Weinberger MB, Apfel F, Kocharian G. The digital health scorecard: A new health literacy metric for NCD prevention and care. Global heart. 2013;8(2):171-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.gheart.2013.05.006]
21. Uauy R, Aro A, Clarke R, L'abbé M, Mozaffarian D, Skeaff C, et al. WHO Scientific Update on trans fatty acids: summary and conclusions. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009;63(S2):S68.
22. Angell SY, Silver LD, Goldstein GP, Johnson CM, Deitcher DR, Frieden TR, et al. Cholesterol control beyond the clinic: New York City's trans fat restriction. Ann Intern Med. 2009;151(2):129-34. [DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-151-2-200907210-00010]
23. Angell SY, Cobb LK, Curtis CJ, Konty KJ, Silver LD. Change in Trans Fatty Acid Content of Fast-Food Purchases Associated With New York City's Restaurant RegulationA Pre–Post Study. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(2):81-6. [DOI:10.7326/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00004]
24. Santos LAT, Cruz R, Casal S. Trans fatty acids in commercial cookies and biscuits: An update of Portuguese market. Food Control. 2015;47:141-6. [DOI:10.1016/j.foodcont.2014.06.046]
25. Karabulut I, Turan S. Some properties of margarines and shortenings marketed in Turkey. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis. 2006;19(1):55-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.jfca.2004.06.016]
26. Zargaraan A, Dinarvand R, Hosseini H. Nutritional Traffic Light Labeling and Taxation on Unhealthy Food Products in Iran: Health Policies to Prevent Non-Communicable Diseases. 2017.
27. Hashemi H, Larijani B, Sayari AK, Malekzadeh R, Dinarvand R, Aghajani M. National Action Plan for Prevention and Control of Non-Communicable Diseases and the Related Risk Factors in the Islamic Republic of Iran, 2015-2025: Iranian National Committee for NCDs Prevention and Control; June, 2015. Available from: www.sbmu.ac.ir.

XML     Print

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 5, Issue 2 (Apr-Jun 2018) Back to browse issues page