Background and Objectives: Furfural (F) and hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) are cyclic aldehydes, which are formed during the heat processing of foods. These chemical contaminants have received much attention due to their suspected health hazards and heat damage indicators. The aim of the present study was extraction and determination of F and HMF in baby-foods using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Materials and Methods: Several effective parameters including the type and volume of extracting and disperser solvents, pH and salt amount were studied and optimized to find the best way of detecting and analyzing F and HMF. The optimized method was applied to determine F and HMF in 33 samples of baby-foods (powdered, soups, fruit puree and juices).
Results: According to the results of this study, the optimal experimental conditions were: 4.5 for pH, 60 µL for 1-octanol, 600 µL for ethanol and 2 g of salt (NaCl). The limit of detection (LOD) was 1.3 µg kg-1 for F and 2.1 µg kg-1 for HMF. F and HMF were found in all samples at levels ranging from 110 to 27510 µg kg-1 and from 200 to 25750 µg kg-1, respectively.
Conclusions: The proposed method can be considered as an effective, fast and reliable method for investigating F and HMF in baby-foods.
Keywords: Furfural, Hydroxymethyl furfural, Baby-foods, Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction, High-performance liquid chromatography