:: Volume 7, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2020) ::
Nutr Food Sci Res 2020, 7(1): 1-7 Back to browse issues page
Are there Relationships between the VDR-FokI Polymorphism and Vitamin D and the Insulin Resistance in Non-melanoma Skin Cancer (NMSC) Patients? A Protocol for Case-control Studies
Fateme Rezaiian , Bahareh Nikooyeh , Tirang R. Neyestani
National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences , neytr@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (3080 Views)
Background and Objectives: Evidence indicate relationships between the sunlight exposure, vitamin D status and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risk. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms have been linked to metabolic changes in insulin resistance and various cancers. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationships between the sunlight exposure and the NMSC risk. Furthermore, relationships between the VDR FokI polymorphism and vitamin D status and the insulin resistance in NMSC patients will be assessed.
Materials and Methods: A hospital-based case-control study is designed. Participants are randomly categorized into case and control groups. Eligible patients are adults who meet the inclusion criteria with verified diagnosis of NMSC with signed informed consents. Totally, 73 NMSC diagnosed cases and 72 healthy controls are recruited and their sunlight exposure data and genetic information are collected via interviews and high-resolution melting (HRM), respectively.
Conclusions: There are controversial reports on the relevance of sunlight exposure to non-melanoma skin cancer risk due to the dual effect of UVB radiation on promoting vitamin D3 synthesis in the skin and increasing DNA damage leading to skin cancer. Results of this study provide data on how much sunlight exposure includes beneficial health effects with no skin cancer risks. Vitamin D status may affect risks of insulin resistance-linked diseases such as cancers. Findings will contribute to the current knowledge of the roles of vitamin D, insulin resistance and FokI polymorphism in skin cancer development.
Keywords: Vitamin D, Insulin resistance, Non-melanoma skin cancer, FokI polymorphism
Full-Text [PDF 635 kb]   (1233 Downloads)    
Article type: Study Protocol | Subject: Nutrition
Received: 2019/11/6 | Accepted: 2019/12/14 | Published: 2020/01/28
1. Apalla Z, Lallas A, Sotiriou E, Lazaridou E, Ioannides D. Epidemiological trends in skin cancer. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2017;7(2):1-6. [DOI:10.5826/dpc.0702a01]
2. Ananthaswamy HN. Sunlight and Skin Cancer. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2001;1(2):49-. [DOI:10.1155/S1110724301000122]
3. Savoye I, Olsen CM, Whiteman DC, Bijon A, Wald L, Dartois L, et al. Patterns of Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure and Skin Cancer Risk: the E3N-SunExp Study. J Epidemiol. 2018;28(1):27-33. [DOI:10.2188/jea.JE20160166]
4. Mason RS, Reichrath J. Sunlight vitamin D and skin cancer. Anti-cancer agents in medicinal chemistry. 2013;13(1):83-97. [DOI:10.2174/187152013804487272]
5. Nair R, Maseeh A. Vitamin D: The "sunshine" vitamin. Journal of pharmacology & pharmacotherapeutics. 2012;3(2):118-26.
6. Kang W, Lee S, Jeon E, Yun Y-R, Kim K-H, Jang J-H. Emerging role of vitamin D in colorectal cancer. World J Gastrointest Oncol. 2011;3(8):123-7. [DOI:10.4251/wjgo.v3.i8.123]
7. McCullough ML, Zoltick ES, Weinstein SJ, Fedirko V, Wang M, Cook NR, et al. Circulating Vitamin D and Colorectal Cancer Risk: An International Pooling Project of 17 Cohorts. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2019;111(2):158-69. [DOI:10.1093/jnci/djy087]
8. Obaidi J, Musallam E, Al-Ghzawi HM, Azzeghaiby SN, Alzoghaibi IN. Vitamin D and its relationship with breast cancer: an evidence based practice paper. Glob J Health Sci. 2014;7(1):261-6. [DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v7n1p261]
9. Estébanez N, Gómez-Acebo I, Palazuelos C, Llorca J, Dierssen-Sotos T. Vitamin D exposure and Risk of Breast Cancer: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):9039-. [DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-27297-1]
10. Song Z-Y, Yao Q, Zhuo Z, Ma Z, Chen G. Circulating vitamin D level and mortality in prostate cancer patients: a dose-response meta-analysis. Endocr Connect. 2018;7(12):R294-R303. [DOI:10.1530/EC-18-0283]
11. Swami S, Krishnan AV, Feldman D. Vitamin D metabolism and action in the prostate: implications for health and disease. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011;347(1-2):61-9. [DOI:10.1016/j.mce.2011.05.010]
12. Guo H, Guo J, Xie W, Yuan L, Sheng X. The role of vitamin D in ovarian cancer: epidemiology, molecular mechanism and prevention. J Ovarian Res. 2018;11(1):71-. [DOI:10.1186/s13048-018-0443-7]
13. Manucha W, Juncos LI. The protective role of vitamin D on the heart and the kidney. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;11(1):12-9. [DOI:10.1177/1753944716675820]
14. Tang JY, Fu T, Lau C, Oh DH, Bikle DD, Asgari MM. Vitamin D in cutaneous carcinogenesis: part II. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 2012;67(5):817.e1-28. [DOI:10.1016/j.jaad.2012.07.022]
15. Bikle DD. Protective actions of vitamin D in UVB induced skin cancer. Photochem Photobiol Sci. 2012;11(12):1808-16. [DOI:10.1039/c2pp25251a]
16. Dixon KM, Tongkao-On W, Sequeira VB, Carter SE, Song EJ, Rybchyn MS, et al. Vitamin D and death by sunshine. Int J Mol Sci. 2013;14(1):1964-77. [DOI:10.3390/ijms14011964]
17. Nair-Shalliker V, Fenech M, Forder PM, Clements MS, Armstrong BK. Sunlight and vitamin D affect DNA damage, cell division and cell death in human lymphocytes: a cross-sectional study in South Australia. Mutagenesis. 2012;27(5):609-14. [DOI:10.1093/mutage/ges026]
18. Swapna N, Vamsi UM, Usha G, Padma T. Risk conferred by FokI polymorphism of vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene for essential hypertension. Indian J Hum Genet. 2011;17(3):201-6. [DOI:10.4103/0971-6866.92104]
19. Ochs-Balcom HM, Cicek MS, Thompson CL, Tucker TC, Elston RC, J Plummer S, et al. Association of vitamin D receptor gene variants, adiposity and colon cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2008;29(9):1788-93. [DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgn166]
20. Burns EM, Elmets CA, Yusuf N. Vitamin D and skin cancer. Photochemistry and photobiology. 2015;91(1):201-9. [DOI:10.1111/php.12382]
21. Orlow I, Roy P, Reiner AS, Yoo S, Patel H, Paine S, et al. Vitamin D receptor polymorphisms in patients with cutaneous melanoma. International journal of cancer. 2012;130(2):405-18. [DOI:10.1002/ijc.26023]
22. Caini S, Boniol M, Tosti G, Magi S, Medri M, Stanganelli I, et al. Vitamin D and melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer risk and prognosis: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Eur J Cancer. 2014;50(15):2649-58. [DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.06.024]
23. Denzer N, Vogt T, Reichrath J. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms and skin cancer: A systematic review. Dermato-endocrinology. 2011;3(3):205-10. [DOI:10.4161/derm.16519]
24. Han J, Colditz GA, Hunter DJ. Polymorphisms in the MTHFR and VDR genes and skin cancer risk. Carcinogenesis. 2007;28(2):390-7. [DOI:10.1093/carcin/bgl156]
25. Lesiak A, Norval M, Wodz-Naskiewicz K, Pawliczak R, Rogowski-Tylman M, Sysa-Jedrzejowska A, et al. An enhanced risk of basal cell carcinoma is associated with particular polymorphisms in the VDR and MTHFR genes. Experimental dermatology. 2011;20(10):800-4. [DOI:10.1111/j.1600-0625.2011.01328.x]
26. Qadir J, Majid S, Rashid F, Hassan I, Sajad P, Bhat YJ, et al. Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphism and risk of skin cancer patients of Kashmiri population (India): A case-control study. Our Dermatology Online/Nasza Dermatologia Online. 2018;9(3). [DOI:10.7241/ourd.20183.2]
27. Cade C, Norman AW. Vitamin D3 improves impaired glucose tolerance and insulin secretion in the vitamin D-deficient rat in vivo. Endocrinology. 1986;119(1):84-90. [DOI:10.1210/endo-119-1-84]
28. Yu F, Cui LL, Li X, Wang CJ, Ba Y, Wang L, et al. The genetic polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus: an updated meta-analysis. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition. 2016;25(3):614-24.
29. Forouhi NG, Luan J, Cooper A, Boucher BJ, Wareham NJ. Baseline serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D is predictive of future glycemic status and insulin resistance: the Medical Research Council Ely Prospective Study 1990-2000. Diabetes. 2008;57(10):2619-25. [DOI:10.2337/db08-0593]
30. Rahmadhani R, Zaharan NL, Mohamed Z, Moy FM, Jalaludin MY. The associations between VDR BsmI polymorphisms and risk of vitamin D deficiency, obesity and insulin resistance in adolescents residing in a tropical country. PloS one. 2017;12(6):e0178695-e. [DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0178695]
31. Xia Z, Hu Y, Han Z, Gao Y, Bai J, He Y, et al. Association of vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms with diabetic dyslipidemia in the elderly male population in North China. Clinical interventions in aging. 2017;12:1673-9. [DOI:10.2147/CIA.S145700]
32. Matthews DR, Hosker JP, Rudenski AS, Naylor BA, Treacher DF, Turner RC. Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man. Diabetologia. 1985;28(7):412-9. [DOI:10.1007/BF00280883]
33. Holick MF. Vitamin D Deficiency. New England Journal of Medicine. 2007;357(3):266-81. [DOI:10.1056/NEJMra070553]
34. Chapuy MC, Preziosi P, Maamer M, Arnaud S, Galan P, Hercberg S, et al. Prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency in an adult normal population. Osteoporosis international : a journal established as result of cooperation between the European Foundation for Osteoporosis and the National Osteoporosis Foundation of the USA. 1997;7(5):439-43. [DOI:10.1007/s001980050030]
35. Holick MF, Siris ES, Binkley N, Beard MK, Khan A, Katzer JT, et al. Prevalence of Vitamin D inadequacy among postmenopausal North American women receiving osteoporosis therapy. The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. 2005;90(6):3215-24. [DOI:10.1210/jc.2004-2364]
36. Bischoff-Ferrari HA, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Dietrich T, Dawson-Hughes B. Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes. The American journal of clinical nutrition. 2006;84(1):18-28. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/84.1.18]
37. Scragg R, Sowers M, Bell C. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Diabetes care. 2004;27(12):2813-8. [DOI:10.2337/diacare.27.12.2813]
38. Nagel G, Bjorge T, Stocks T, Manjer J, Hallmans G, Edlinger M, et al. Metabolic risk factors and skin cancer in the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer Project (Me-Can). The British journal of dermatology. 2012;167(1):59-67. [DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2012.10974.x]
39. Padhi T. Metabolic syndrome and skin: psoriasis and beyond. Indian journal of dermatology. 2013;58(4):299-305. [DOI:10.4103/0019-5154.113950]

XML     Print

Rights and permissions
Creative Commons License This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.
Volume 7, Issue 1 (Jan-Mar 2020) Back to browse issues page